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Turkey

Syria

Iraq

Lebanon

Israel

Palestine

Jordon

Saudi Arabia

Kuwait

Bahrain

Qatar

United Arab Emirates

Oman

Yemen

Cyprus

* Republic of China : see Taiwan    * East Timor : see Timor-Leste   * Burma: see Myanmar

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Turkey ( Turkish Republic )
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1307 Ottoman Emirate.
1453 Constantinople captured, end of Byzantine Empire.
1473 Ottoman Empire.
1920 Counter government formed at Ankara.
1920 The Ottoman empire abolished, Turkey cedes Lebanon and Syria to France.
1922 Turkish State ( Sultanate abolished ).
1923 Turkey regains all the lands ceded to Greece.
1923 Turkish Republic ( Republic of Turkey )
1924 Caliphate abolished.
1939 Hatay incorporated into Turkey.
1974 Turkish administration of northern Cyprus.

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Unknown 1703 1730 1793 1808

1826 1867 Now


Syria ( Syrian Arab Republic )
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1516 Part of the Ottoman Empire.
1799 French occupy coastal parts of Syria.
1832 Annexed by Egypt ( both nominally under Ottoman suzerainty ).
1840 Direct Ottoman rule restored.
1918 Independence
1918 British/French occupation, divided into British southern zone ( Palestine ), French zone ( Lebanon and coastal Syria ),

         and an interior Arab state ( Syria ) to 1919.
1920 Kingdom of Syria
1920 State of Great Lebanon ( part of French Syria ).
1920 State of Damascus and State of Aleppo formed ( under French mandate ).
1922 Union of Syrian States
1923 Syria a League of Nations Mandate under France to 1944.
1925 State of Syria
1926 Lebanese Republic separated as a mandate.
1932 Syrian Republic
1939 State of Syria
1940 Administration loyal to Vichy France to 1941.
1941 Occupied by British and ( Free ) French troops to 1946.
1941 Syrian Republic
1944 Independence from France declared, 1946 Independence recognized by France.
1958 Part of United Arab Republic to 1961. ( Egypt and Syria )
1961 Syrian Arab Republic

1963 Proposed Arab Socialist Union with Egypt, Iraq and Syria. ( The agreement was not carried out )

1972 Federation of Arab Republics to 1977. ( Egypt, Libya and Syria )

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Unknown 1918 1920 1920 1922

1930 1932 1958 1961 1963

1972 1980 Now


Iraq ( Iraqi Republic )
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1534 Mesopotamia part of the Ottoman Empire.
1623 Persian occupation to 1638.
1751 Semi-independent Mameluke Beys are governors of Baghdad to 1831.
1831 Direct Ottoman rule restored.
1832 Egyptian administration of Basra to 1842.
1914 British occupation of Mesopotamia begins.
1919 British rule.
1920 State of Iraq ( League of Nations Mandate under Britain ).
1921 Iraqi Kingdom
1941 British occupation to 1945.
1922 Iraqi-Saudi Arabian neutral zone in southern area to 1981.
1932 Full independence.
1958 Federation with Jordan ( Arab Union ).
1958 Iraqi Republic ( Repulic of Iraq )

1963 Proposed Arab Socialist Union with Egypt, Iraq and Syria. ( The agreement was not carried out )
1990 Annexation of Kuwait as 19th province of Iraq to 1991.

2003 U.S.-British occupation ( Coalition Provisional Authority ) to 2004.
2004 Iraqi Interim Government / Iraqi Transitional Government to 2005.

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Unknown 1918 1919 1920

1921 1922 1924 1959

1963 1972 1991 2004

2004 2008 Now


Lebanon ( Lebanese Republic )
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1800 BC Location of Phoenician cities; subsequently ruleded by Babylonians, Persians, Greeks, Romans, Byzantines, Crusaders,

         and Arabs to 332 BC.
1287 Part of Mameluke Sultanate of Egypt.
1516 Part of the Ottoman Empire.
1698 Banu Shihab replace Banu Ma`n.
1585 Direct Ottoman rule to 1590.
1832 Annexed by Egypt ( both nominally Ottoman ).
1840 Ottoman rule restored.
1842 Mount Lebanon emirate ended.
1860 Occupation by France to 1861.
1861 Special status of Mount Lebanon within Ottoman Empire.
1918 Annexed by Syria.
1918 Occupied by France and Britain.
1920 State of Great Lebanon ( part of French Syrian mandate ).
1926 Lebanese Republic ( under separated from Syrian state, remains part of French Syria mandate ).
1940 Administration loyal to Vichy France to 1941.
1941 Anglo-French occupation to 1946.
1941 Independence from France declared, Lebanese Republic, recognized by France 1943.
1976 Syrian troops garrison Lebanon.
1982 Southern Lebanon occupied by Israel to 2000.

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Unknown 1698 1842 1918 1920

1943 1995 Now


Israel ( State of Israel )
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1250 BC Exodus of the Hebrew people out of Egypt led by Moses.
1200 BC Hebrew conquest of Canaan ( Palestine ).
1020 BC Kingdom of Israel; from 922 separate Kingdom of Judah and Solomon.
  586 BC Repeated conquest by Assyria, Babylonia, Persia, Macedonia, Egypt, and Syria to 135 BC.
  135 BC Kingdom of Judaea to 6 AD ( from 63 BC, under Roman suzerainty ); under King Herod "the Great" 37 BC - 4 AD.
    63 BC Conquest by Roman Empire, Byzantine Empire, and finally the Arabs to 638 AD.
1099 Christian Crusaders Kingdom of Jerusalem to 1291.
1263 Part of Mameluke Sultanate of Egypt to 1291.
1516 Part of the Ottoman Empire, part of the viyalet ( province ) of Damascus-Syria.
1660 Part of the viyalet of Sa`ida.
1799 French occupation of Jaffa, Haifa, and Caesarea.
1832 Annexed by Egypt to 1840 ( remains nominally Ottoman ).
1840 Direct Ottoman rule restored.
1917 Balfour Declaration: Britain views favorably the the creation of a Jewish state in Palestine.
1917 British forces occupy Jerusalem.
1918 British occupation of all of Palestine.
1922 League of Nations mandate.
1923 Transjordan separated from Palestine.
1948 Independence from Britain, State of Israel.
1956 Israel occupies Sinai peninsula to 1957.
1967 Israel occupies Golan Heights; Sinai peninsula and Gaza Strip; West Bank and East Jerusalem.
1982 Sinai peninsula fully restored to Egypt.
1994 Formation of the Palestinian Authority.

@ Unknown 1918 1927 1948 1948 Now

Palestine ( State of Palestine )
@ see under Israel
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Unknown 1918 1927

1948 and 1956 1957 and

1958 and 1967 1994 Now


Jordon ( Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan )
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1516 Part of the Ottoman Empire.
1920 Part of British mandate of Palestine.
1921 Emirate of Transjordan ( under British mandate ).
1923 Transjordan formally separated from Palestine.
1928 Autonomy
1946 Hashemite Kingdom of Transjordan.
1946 Independence from Britain.
1949 Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan
1950 Jordan annexes the West Bank and East Jerusalem.
1958 Federation with Iraq ( Arab Union ).
1967 West Bank and East Jerusalem occupied by Israel.
1988 Abandons claim to the West Bank and East Jerusalem.

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Unknown 1918 and 1920 and

1921 Now


Saudi Arabia ( Kingdom of Saudi Arabia )
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1921 Sultanate of Nejd and Its Dependencies.
1927 Kingdom of Nejd and Its Dependencies.
1932 Hejaz and Nejd united as Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.
1922 Kuwaiti-Saudi Arabian neutral zone in northeastern border area to 1965.
1922 Iraqi-Saudi Arabian neutral zone in northwestern border area to 1981.
1995 Iraqi-Saudi neutral zone formally partitioned between Iraq and Saudi Arabia.

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Unknown 1840 1916 1921 and

1925 1934 1938 1973 1980 Now


Kuwait ( State of Kuwait )
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1534 Part of the the Ottoman Empire.
1623 Persian occupation to 1638.
1752 Al Sabah lineage founds Kuwait.
1871 Rulers recognize sovereignty of the Ottoman Empire.
1913 U.K. recognizes Kuwait as an 'autonomous' part of the Ottoman Empire.
1914 British protectorate.
1922  Kuwaiti-Saudi Arabian neutral zone in southern border area to 1965.
1961 Independence from UK, State of Kuwait.
1990 Provisional Free Kuwait Government formed by Iraq, Annexed by Iraq to 1991.

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Unknown 1853 1871 1903

1905 1906 1913 1914

1961 1990 1991 Now


Bahrain ( Kingdom of Bahrain )
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1521 Portuguese occupation to 1602.
1602 Annexed to Persia.
1783 Al Khalifah lineage conquers settles on Bahrain.
1783 Al Khalifah dynasty rules both Bahrain and Qatar to 1868.
1800 Occupied by Muscat and Oman to 1801.
1820/1861 Informal protection treaties with Britain.
1880 British protectorate to 1971.
1913 Ottomans recognizes British administration.
1961 Autonomy
1971 State of Bahrain
2002 Kingdom of Bahrain

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1783 1820 1932

1972 2002 Now


Qatar ( State of Qatar )
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1550 Part of the the Ottoman Empire to 1670.
1868 Muhammad ibn Thani signs treaty with the British, effectively establishing Qatar as an independent State.
1871 Sovereignty of the Ottoman Empire over Qatar recognized.
1916 British protectorate (Sheikdom of Qatar).
1937 Zubra annexed, previously under Bahrain.
1971 Independence from Britain, State of Qatar.

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Unknown 1868 1916

1932 1949 1971 Now


United Arab Emirates ( United Arab Emirates )
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1819 British forces begin suppressing piracy along the "Pirate Coast".
1820 General Maritime Treaty between the local sheikhs and Britain.
1853 Named the Trucial States.
1892 British protectorate of Trucial States or Trucial Oman to 1971.
1939 British resident established in the Trucial States at Dubai 1971 Provisional formation of Federation of Arab Emirates.

         ( Trucial States together with Bahrain and Qatar )
1971 Federation of six emirates as United Arab Emirates.
1972 Accession of Ras al-Khaimah.

@ 1820 1971 1971 Now

Oman ( Sultanate of Oman )
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  650 Kings of the Azd clan convert to Islam.
  661 Oman (`Uman) ruled by the Ibadi community under a leader styled Imam al-Muslimin to 1811.
1784 While Imams rule continues, Muscat and Oman becomes a de facto sovereign state under a secular Al ´Bu Sa`id ruler.
1820 First treaty with Britain.
1855 Second treaty with Britain.
1861 Separation of Zanzibar from Oman and style Sultan recognized by U.K. mediation.
1868 Imams rule briefly restored.
1871 Sultanate of Muscat and Oman restored.
1891 Informal British protectorate over Muscat and Oman to 1971.
1913 Imami government in the interior of Oman, usually in opposition to the sultan's rule to 1957.
1958 Gwadar enclave in Baluchistan ceded to Pakistan.
1965 Secessionist rebellion in Dhofar (Zufar) region to 1975.
1970 Sultanate of Oman

@ Unknown 1970 1995 Now

Yemen ( Republic of Yemen )
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1538 Aden part of the Ottoman Empire.
1839 British occupation of Aden.
1839 Aden a British colony.
1876 North Yemen ( Sana ) annexed to Ottoman Empire.
1918 Independence of Yemen ( Sana ) from Ottoman Empire.
1962 Yemen Arab Republic ( Yemen [Sana] ).
1967 Independence of Yemen ( Aden ) from Britain, People's Republic of South Yemen.
1970 People's Democratic Republic of Yemen ( Yemen [Aden] ).
1990 Unification as Republic of Yemen.
1994 Former Yemen ( Aden ) in secession as Democratic Republic of Yemen.


Yemen Arab Republic ( North Yemen )

1517 Part of the Ottoman Empire to 1636.
1597 Qasimi State, called Yemen from 1905.
1872 Ottoman occupation.
1876 Annexed to Ottoman Empire to 1905.
1918 Independence from Ottoman Empire ( Mutawakkilite Kingdom of Yemen ).
1926 Nejd-Hejaz annexes Najrãn from Yemen.
1926 Mutawakkilite Kingdom of Yemen internationally recognized.
1958 Part of confederation of the United Arab States ( with United Arab Republic ) to 1961.
1962 Yemen Arab Republic

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Democratic Republic of Yemen ( South Yemen )

1538 Aden part of the Ottoman Empire.
1547 Aden occupied by Portugal to 1551.
1839 British occupation of Aden.
1932 Aden a separate province of British India.
1937 British colony and protectorates.
1959 Federation of Arab Emirates of the South
1962 Federation of South Arabia
1963 Colony of Aden becomes State of Aden ( part of Federation of South Arabia ).
1967 Independence, People's Republic of South Yemen.
1970 People's Democratic Republic of Yemen
1994 Former Yemen ( Aden ) in secession from Yemen ( Democratic Republic of Yemen ).

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@ ( North Yemen )

1636 1867 1918 1923

1927 1962 1962 1990

( South Yemen )

Unknown 1839 1937

1959 1963 and 1967 1990

( Republic of Yemen )

1990 Now


Cyprus ( Republic of Cyprus )
@ 1489 Sold to Venetian Republic by last Lusignan ruler.
1570 Sandjak of the Ottoman Empire (Kibris); part of Elayet of Djeza'ir-i bahr-i (see Rhodes under Greece).
1703 Under administration of the Grand Viziers of the Ottoman Empire to 1745.
1745 Administered directly from Istanbul to 1785.
1822 Egyptian supremacy to 1829.
1833 Egyptian occupation to 1840.
1840 Part of the domains of the Kapudan Pasha (Great Admiral) to 1849.
1849 Part of the Elayet (province) Djeza'ir-i bahr-i Sefid to 1861.
1861 Directly subordinated to Constantinople to 1867.
1871 Directly subordinated to Constantinople to 1878.
1878 British administration (under Ottoman suzerainty to 5 Nov 1914).
1914 British annexation.
1925 Cyprus a crown colony
1960 Independence (Republic of Cyprus).
1974 Turkish invasion.
1974 Turkish Federated State formed in northern Cyprus.
1983 Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus (recognized only by Turkey) formed.
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( Republic of Northern Cyprus )

Unknown 1878 1881 1922

1960 1960 2006 Now

( North Cyprus - Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus )

1974 1984 Now



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